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23-Dec-2017 01:31

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), substance dependence may involve several symptoms (tolerance, withdrawal, adverse repercussions on social and professional areas, loss of control of the consumption, and persistence despite the adverse effects engendered).The concept has since undergone major revision with the appearance of new types of entities, entitled non-chemical (] and pathological gambling.In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR) that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS), the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD) and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS).For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity.Many studies in these fields have adapted criteria from DSM-IV-TR such as gambling criteria for the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) [].We decided to test substance dependence DSM-IV-TR criteria to screen for online gaming addiction.The DAS appeared to be a good first-line instrument to screen MMORPG addiction in online gamers.This study found high MMORPG addiction rates, and self-reported adverse symptoms in important aspects of life, including mood and sleep.

The term dependence can be used generally with reference to the whole range of psychoactive drugs (drug, chemical or substance use dependence) or with specific reference to a particular drug or class of drugs (alcohol or opioid dependence) and refers to both physical and psychological elements [].

Dependence could be defined as an adaptive neural response to the pharmacological effect of substance abuse, and is associated with withdrawal when the substance is not accessible.

This definition corresponds to what was previously called "physical dependence", that is inadequate to explain substance and non-substance addiction.

Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are a very popular and enjoyable leisure activity, and there is a lack of international validated instruments to assess excessive gaming.

With the growing number of gamers worldwide, adverse effects (isolation, hospitalizations, excessive use, etc.) are observed in a minority of gamers, which is a concern for society and for the scientific community.In this context, this research, which is mostly exploratory, focused on separating MMORPG addiction from IA (according to Davis's theoretical model) using different screening tools for addiction in the same sample.